NASA has been sending five robotic rovers to Planet Mars well over the years. The 5 rovers are named as Sojourner, Curiosity, Spirit & Opportunity, and perseverance.

Mars is a world of fascination. The cold is freezing, and the soil is reddish. These have volcanoes, ravines, and plains, like the Earth. Wissenschaftler could also see canals that look similar to such a long time back cut out by streams and rivers. Past many years, we have seen by Mars four robotic rovers, or vehicles. In February 2021, NASA’s 5th rover on Mars, Perseverance, which landed on Planet Mars. In this article, we have jotted down the details about the rovers that were sent to Mars.

Sojourner Rover

Sojourner is indeed a rover who landed at Ares Vallis on Mars in 1997 and took numerous pictures.

Scientists from NASA did quite something awesome in 1997. They used a little wheeled robot for the very first time to research Mars’ surface. The robotic explorer, a rover named Sojourner. The scale of the microwave oven was approximate. However, several valuable new knowledge was shared with scientists.

On his path to Mars, Sojourner was not alone. He went through the landscape of a spacecraft. The lander was built like that of an airbag pyramid. The airbags contributed to the secure, fast landing of the lander. The pyramid shape contributed to the right-hand turn of the lander and of the rover regardless of how it landed. After the lander hit Mars, a screen opened, and Sojourner started exploring.

The rover was exploring a Mars area near its Ares Vallis landing site. This place was of interest to scientists because it appeared like an ancient flood site. The flowing flood water might have brought several rocks and dirt to one spot. This means that without going far, the rover can examine several different types of rocks.

The region had also been liked by engineers because Sojourner seemed to land like such a comfortable flat.

Sojourner used his camera to take photos of the Martian landscape when driving short distances. It returned over 550 Red Planet images. The rover used tools to research the fabric of surrounding martian rocks and soil. The lander also gathered wind as well as weather data on Mars.

Mars looks dry, cold & rocky from a distance. But the photographs and information of Sojourner tell a very different story. We heard that Mars was a colder, wetter location a long time ago.

Spirit & Opportunity Rovers

Spirit & Opportunity are twin rovers that have been made to learn so much about Mars earth.

NASA decided to send many rivers to know about Mars following the success of the sojourner rover. Thus two rovers were sent to the Red Planet in 2003. Spirit as well as Opportunity were called the rovers. The Mars Exploration Rover missions were conducted collectively.

As twins were rendered the Spirit & Opportunity. Both of them used the same scientific tools. And every golf cart is about the same size.

There’s life on Earth, in which there is water. Spirit and chance have been sent to Mars to obtain further insights into the water past there and would find out whether the Red Planet might have sustained life. In order to do this, researchers sent the two rovers to two separate landing places. On the other side of the globe, the rovers landed.

An area named Gusev Crater was known as Spirit. Speaking of the craters long ago, the scientists decided to investigate them. Scientists assumed that many big rivers flowed into Gusev Crater from pictures taken from satellites.

Opportunity landed in Meridiani Planum but on the other side of Mars. It was good because the rover could land in a flat, secure place. In addition, satellite studies around Mars have shown it could include a mineral called gray hematitis. Gray dermatitis is often found in water on Earth.

Spirit took with his camera many of Mars’ images on his trip. They were the first color pictures of another planet captured by a rover. Spirit also found traces of past water, geothermal or volcanic activities. It has been exploring locations that were hot springs millions of years ago.

Opportunity did not take color pictures of the Martian landscape to be overwhelmed by its twin. He also found proof of water.

Chance studied mineral layers in the rock near their landing place. Opportunity Proof from its collection showed that its landing used to be a salty sea shoreline.

Scientists have learnt from the rocks that Spirit and Opportunity researched that water on Mars may have been much like water on earth. Once upon a time, Mars had surface lakes and rivers. As that of the earth, water was under the ground, and water vapor also existed in the atmosphere.

Curiosity Rover

Curiosity is indeed a rover that was sent to Mars to decide if the Red Planet has the right survival conditions.

There have been living creatures on Earth in which there is water. We realize that even a long time ago, Mars had water. But did it have other requirements for life?

NASA sent the rover Curiosity to Mars to find out these details. Curiosity is another planet’s biggest robot ever to land. The scale of an SUV is the approximate size of the rover.

Since Curiosity is just so big, the wheels are also larger than the previous rovers. It rolls over rocks and sand without being trapped. But it still flies just around 660 feet even on a long day of driving.

In Gale Crater, Curiosity landed. This is a rare crater because it is in the center of a high mountain. There’s a lot of rock on the peak. Each stratum consists of various minerals from various periods of time. These minerals could tell scientists about Mars’s water history.

The rover uses several analytical tools to research the Gale Crater rocks. Curiosity made a crater on a rock at the bottom of a lake which was mud. One of his other instruments examined rock powder. This knowledge allowed scientists to discover that the Gale crater had ancient life-based ingredients.

Scientists sent Curiosity to Mars, too—including radiation—to measure a ton. Radiation is a kind of sun-borne energy. It moves in powerful waves, which can damage livelihoods. Curiosity has discovered that Mars has heavy, hazardous radiation levels. For human explorers, NASA can use radiation data from Curiosity to plan safer missions.

Curiosity took the Red Planet with 17 cameras—more than any rover. It takes pictures of its path using some of its cameras. Cameras also serve as the eyes of Curiosity to enable it to detect and avoid the threat.

Just at the end of its 7-foot robotic arm, including some of the cameras of Curiosity, also functions as some kind of “selfie stick.” The camera can be kept two meters away, and that can take a selfie to return to Earth.

Perseverance Rover

The rover that landed on Mars on February 18, 2021, is perseverance. It studies a Mars area known as the Crater of Jezero. This rover answers several questions regarding the Red Planet and looks for evidence of past microbial existence.

Rovers on Mars gathered waterproof and some of the blocks of chemical life. Researchers believe that life on Mars may have existed a long time ago. If there had been living creatures, they probably were smaller teenagers, somehow like bacteria on earth. But did life ever begin on Mars?

This question is being answered by the Mars 2020 mission. A rover close to Curiosity was sent by the team to explore the rocks, soil, and the air on Mars. The Perseverance rover, like Curiosity, is indeed a small SUV in size. The new rover does have a different objective and different tools. He’ll seek signs of past life on Mars directly.

The new rover would also test a natural resource which will help prepare a human mission to Mars.

Mars’ atmosphere has mostly been made of carbon dioxide gas. But so many living things have to breathe oxygen. When a man goes to Mars, he has to carry a great amount of oxygen. There is indeed not a lot of room for liquid oxygen in the spacecraft.

The rover would test a procedure in the Martian atmosphere to extract oxygen from the air. It will support NASA’s preparations to send human astronauts one day to explore Mars.

Perseverance arrived in the Jezero Crater region of Mars. That is a very ancient area of Mars and could have been the site of an old river delta for scientists. This crater is fascinating. The rocks in this area could teach us more about the Red Planet’s origins and might have preserved signatures of Mars’ past existence.

On 30 July 2020, the Perseverance rover was launched from Earth as well as on 18 February 2021, it appeared secured. 

So these were the five rovers that were sent to Mars for research.